Aalberg, Toril, Frank Esser, Carsten Reinemann, Jesper Strömbäck, and Claes Holger Vreese, eds. “Populist political communication in Europe.” Routledge, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315623016.
Abts, Koen, and Stefan Rummens. “Populism versus democracy.” Political studies 55, no. 2 (2007): 405-424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2007.00657.x
Albertazzi, Daniele, and Duncan McDonnell. “Conclusion: Populism and twenty-first century Western European democracy.” In D Albertazzi and D. McDonnell (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism, pp. 217-223. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230592100_14
Arditi, Benjamin. “Populism as a spectre of democracy: a response to Canovan.” Political Studies 52, no. 1 (2004): 135-143. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2004.00468.x
Aslanidis, Paris. “Is populism an ideology? A refutation and a new perspective.” Political studies 64, no. 1_suppl (2016): 88-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12224
Batory, Agnes. “Populists in government? Hungary’s “system of national cooperation”.” Democratization 23, no. 2 (2016): 283-303.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2015.1076214
Bentivegna, Sara, and Rossella Rega. “Searching for the Dimensions of Today’s Political Incivility.” Social Media+ Society 8, no. 3 (2022): https://doi.org/10.1177/20563051221114430
Betz, Hans-Georg. Exclusionary populism in Western Europe in the 1990s and beyond. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 2004. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/45939/9.pdf
Bhat, Prashanth, and Kalyani Chadha. “Anti-media populism: Expressions of media distrust by right-wing media in India.” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication 13, no. 2 (2020): 166-182. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2020.1739320
Bonikowski, Bart. “Three lessons of contemporary populism in Europe and the United States.” The Brown Journal of World Affairs 23, no. 1 (2016): 9-24. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26534707
Boyd, Richard. “’The value of civility?’.” Urban Studies 43, no. 5-6 (2006): 863-878. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980600676105
Bracciale, Roberta, and Antonio Martella. “Define the populist political communication style: the case of Italian political leaders on Twitter.” Information, communication & society 20, no. 9 (2017): 1310-1329. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12032.
Brooks, Deborah Jordan, and John G. Geer. “Beyond negativity: The effects of incivility on the electorate.” American Journal of Political Science 51, no. 1 (2007): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00233.x
Calhoun, Cheshire. “The Virtue of Civility.” Philosophy & Public Affairs 29, no. 3 (2000): 251–75. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2672847.
Canovan, Margaret. “Taking politics to the people: Populism as the ideology of democracy.” In Mény, Y., Surel, Y. (eds) Democracies and the populist challenge, pp. 25-44. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781403920072_2
Canovan, Margaret. “Trust the people! Populism and the two faces of democracy.” Political studies 47, no. 1 (1999): 2-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00184
Canovan, Margaret. “Two strategies for the study of populism.” Political studies 30, no. 4 (1982): 544-552.
Carlson, Matt, Sue Robinson, and Seth C. Lewis. “Digital press criticism: The symbolic dimensions of Donald Trump’s assault on US journalists as the “enemy of the people”.” Digital Journalism 9, no. 6 (2021): 737-754. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1836981
Chesterley, Nicholas, and Paolo Roberti. “Populism and institutional capture.” European Journal of Political Economy53 (2018): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.6092/unibo/amsacta/5455
De Cleen, Benjamin, and Yannis Stavrakakis. “Distinctions and articulations: A discourse theoretical framework for the study of populism and nationalism.” Javnost-The Public 24, no. 4 (2017): 301-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2017.1330083
Egelhofer, Jana Laura, and Sophie Lecheler. “Fake news as a two-dimensional phenomenon: A framework and research agenda.” Annals of the International Communication Association 43, no. 2 (2019): 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2019.1602782
Egelhofer, Jana Laura, Loes Aaldering, Jakob-Moritz Eberl, Sebastian Galyga, and Sophie Lecheler. “From novelty to normalization? How journalists use the term “fake news” in their reporting.” Journalism Studies 21, no. 10 (2020): 1323-1343. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2020.1745667
Engesser, Sven, Nayla Fawzi, and Anders Olof Larsson. “Populist online communication: Introduction to the special issue.” Information, communication & society 20, no. 9 (2017): 1279-1292. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328525
Engesser, Sven, Nicole Ernst, Frank Esser, and Florin Büchel. “Populism and social media: How politicians spread a fragmented ideology.” Information, communication & society20, no. 8 (2017): 1109-1126.
Espejo, Paulina Ochoa. “Paradoxes of popular sovereignty: A view from Spanish America.” The Journal of Politics 74, no. 4 (2012): 1053-1065. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381612000503
Fawzi, Nayla, and Benjamin Krämer. “The media as part of a detached elite? Exploring antimedia populism among citizens and its relation to political populism.” International Journal of Communication 15 (2021): 3292-3314. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/14795
Fawzi, Nayla. “Untrustworthy news and the media as “enemy of the people?” How a populist worldview shapes recipients’ attitudes toward the media.” The International Journal of Press/Politics 24, no. 2 (2019): 146-164. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161218811981
Federação Nacional dos Jornalistas. Violência contra jornalistas e liberdade de imprensa no Brasil, Relatório 2021 (Brasília: FENAJ, 2022).
Federação Nacional dos Jornalistas. Violência contra jornalistas e liberdade de imprensa no Brasil, Relatório 2020 (Brasília: FENAJ, 2021).
Federação Nacional dos Jornalistas. Violência contra jornalistas e liberdade de imprensa no Brasil, Relatório 2019 (Brasília: FENAJ, 2020).
Feld, Scott L., Joseph Godfrey, and Bernard Grofman. “In quest of the banks set in spatial voting games.” Social Choice and Welfare 41, no. 1 (2013): 43-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00355-012-0676-0
Flores, Ana Marta M., and Janara Nicoletti. “A imprensa no perfil de Jair Bolsonaro no Instagram nos 100 primeiros dias da pandemia de Covid-19.” In Raquel Ritter Longhi, Stefanie Carlan da Silveira and Rita Paulino (Eds.), Jornalismo e Plataformização: Abordagens investigativas contemporâneas (Insular, 2021): 83-101.Moffitt, Benjamin, and Simon Tormey. “Rethinking populism: Politics, mediatisation and political style.” Political studies 62, no. 2 (2014): 381-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328522.
Gervais, Bryan T. “Incivility online: Affective and behavioral reactions to uncivil political posts in a web-based experiment.” Journal of Information Technology & Politics 12, no. 2 (2015): 167-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2014.997416
Gervais, Bryan T. “Rousing the partisan combatant: Elite incivility, anger, and antideliberative attitudes.” Political Psychology 40, no. 3 (2019): 637-655. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12532.
Gutmann, Amy, and Dennis Thompson. “Democracy and Disagreement. Cambridge: Belknap.” (1996).
Haller, André, and Kristoffer Holt. “Paradoxical populism: How PEGIDA relates to mainstream and alternative media.” Information, Communication & Society 22, no. 12 (2019): 1665-1680. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1449882
Hameleers, Michael. “Populist disinformation: Exploring intersections between online populism and disinformation in the US and the Netherlands.” Politics and Governance 8, no. 1 (2020): 146-157. https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v8i1.2478
Hawkins, Kirk A. Venezuela’s Chavismo and populism in comparative perspective. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Herbst, Susan. Rude democracy: Civility and incivility in American politics. Temple University Press, 2010.
Holt, Kristoffer. “Populism and alternative media.” In Perspectives on populism and the media, pp. 201-214. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845297392
Horbyk, Roman, Isabel Löfgren, Yana Prymachenko, and Cheryll Soriano. “Fake News As Meta-Mimesis: Imitative Genres and Storytelling in The Philippines, Brazil, Russia And Ukraine.” Popular Inquiry: The Journal of Kitsch, Camp and Mass Culture 1 (2021): 30-54. https://www.popularinquiry.com/blog/2021/10/21/roman-horbyk-isabel-lfgren-yana-prymachenko-amp-cheryll-soriano-fake-news-as-meta-mimesis-imitative-genres-and-storytelling-in-the-philippines-brazil-russia-and-ukraine.
Houle, Christian, and Paul D. Kenny. “The political and economic consequences of populist rule in Latin America.” Government and Opposition 53, no. 2 (2018): 256-287. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2016.25
Huber, Robert A., and Christian H. Schimpf. “Friend or foe? Testing the influence of populism on democratic quality in Latin America.” Political Studies 64, no. 4 (2016): 872-889. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12219
Jagers, Jan, and Stefaan Walgrave. “Populism as political communication style: An empirical study of political parties’ discourse in Belgium.” European journal of political research46, no. 3 (2007): 319-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00690.x
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, Allyson Volinsky, Ilana Weitz, and Kate Kenski. “The political uses and abuses of civility and incivility.” The Oxford handbook of political communication(2017): 205-218. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199793471.013.79_update_001
Krämer, Benjamin. “Media populism: A conceptual clarification and some theses on its effects.” Communication Theory 24, no. 1 (2014): 42-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/comt.12029
Krämer, Benjamin. “Populism, media, and the form of society.” Communication theory 28, no. 4 (2018): 444-465. https://doi.org/10.1093/ct/qty017
Krämer, Benjamin. “Populist and non-populist media: Their paradoxical role in the development and diffusion of a right-wing ideology.” In Heinisch, Reinhard, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, eds. Political Populism: Handbook of Concepts, Questions and Strategies of Research 3. Nomos Verlag (2021): 441-456.
Kyle, Jordan, and Yascha Mounk. “The populist harm to democracy: An empirical assessment.” Tony Blair Institute for Global Change 18 (2018).http://institute.global/insight/
Laclau, Ernesto. On populist reason. Verso, 2005;
Laden, Anthony Simon. “Two concepts of civility.” In Boatright, Robert G., Timothy J. Shaffer, Sarah Sobieraj, and Dannagal Goldthwaite Young, eds. A crisis of civility?: political discourse and its discontents, pp. 9-30. Routledge, 2019.
Macaraig, Ayee, and Michael Hameleers. “# DefendPressFreedom: Paradigm Repair, Role Perceptions and Filipino Journalists’ Counterstrategies to Anti-Media Populism and Delegitimizing Threats.” Journalism Studies(2022): 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2022.2138949
Mazzoleni, Gianpietro. “Mediated populism.” The International Encyclopedia of Communication (2008). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405186407.wbiecm057
Moffitt, Benjamin. The global rise of populism: Performance, political style, and representation. Stanford University Press, 2016.
Mudde, C. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511492037.
Mudde, Cas, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. Populism: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Mudde, Cas. “The populist zeitgeist.” Government and opposition 39, no. 4 (2004): 541-563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x
Muddiman, Ashley. “Personal and public levels of political incivility.” International Journal of Communication 11 (2017): 3182–3202. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/6137
Mueller, Axel. “The meaning of ‘populism’.” Philosophy & Social Criticism 45, no. 9-10 (2019): 1025-1057. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453719872277
Müller, Jan-Werner. What is populism?. Penguin UK, 2017.
Mutz, Diana C. “In-your-face politics.” In In-Your-Face Politics. Princeton University Press, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400865871
Mutz, Diana C., and Byron Reeves. “The new videomalaise: Effects of televised incivility on political trust.” American Political Science Review 99, no. 1 (2005): 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055405051452
Novais, Rui A., “Aggravating circumstances? The COVID-19-related situational threats against the press in Portugal.” Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies (2022): 1-21, article first, https://doi.org/10.1386/ajms_00086_1
Novais, Rui A., “A game of masks: the communicative performance of the Portuguese populist far-right.” In Magalhães, Luísa and Cândido O. Martins, eds. Masks and Human Connections: Disruptive Meanings and Cultural Challenges, Palgrave/MacMillan, 2023 (forthcoming).
Papacharissi, Zizi. “Democracy online: Civility, politeness, and the democratic potential of online political discussion groups.” New media & society 6, no. 2 (2004): 259-283. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444804041444
Pintsch, Anne, Dennis Hammerschmidt, and Cosima Meyer. “Introduction: the decline of democracy and rise of populism in Europe and their effect on democracy promotion.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 35, no. 4 (2022): 405-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2022.2082797
Plattner, Marc F. “From liberalism to liberal democracy.” Journal of democracy 10, no. 3 (1999): 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1999.0053
Rawls, John. Justice as fairness: A restatement. Harvard University Press, (2001).
Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press (1993).
Reporters Without Borders. 2019 RSF Index: Authoritarianism and disinformation worsen the situation in Latin America. April 21, 2020. https://rsf.org/en/2019-rsf-index-authoritarianism-and-disinformation-worsen-situation-latin-america.
Reporters Without Borders. 2020 RSF Index: Americas. https://rsf.org/en/classement/2020/americas.
Reporters Without Borders. Bolsonaro poses a serious threat to press freedom and democracy in Brazil. October 10, 2018. https://rsf.org/en/bolsonaro-poses-serious-threat-press-freedom-and-democracy-brazil
Reporters Without Borders. Brazil Report 2022. https://rsf.org/en/country/brazil.
Rooduijn, Matthijs. “The nucleus of populism: In search of the lowest common denominator.” Government and opposition 49, no. 4 (2014): 573-599. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2013.30
Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal. “The ambivalence of populism: threat and corrective for democracy.” Democratization 19, no. 2 (2012): 184-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2011.572619
Rummens, Stefan, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, Pierre Ostiguy, Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, and Paul Taggart. Populism as a Threat to Liberal Democracy. The Oxford Handbook of Populism ; 2017; Pp. 554 – 570. Oxford University Press; Oxford, 2017.
Ruth-Lovell, Saskia P., Anna Lührmann, and Sandra Grahn. “Democracy and populism: Testing a contentious relationship.” V-Dem Working Paper 91 (2019). www.v-dem.net.
Ruth, Saskia Pauline. “Populism and the erosion of horizontal accountability in Latin America.” Political Studies 66, no. 2 (2018): 356-375. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321717723511
Ruzza, Carlo. “Civil society between populism and anti-populism.” Nostalgia and hope: Intersections between politics of culture, welfare, and migration in Europe (2020): 221-235. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41694-2_14
Sakki, Inari, and Katarina Pettersson. “Discursive constructions of otherness in populist radical right political blogs.” European journal of social psychology 46, no. 2 (2016): 156-170. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2142
Samuels, David J. and Cesar Zucco. Partisans, antipartisans, and nonpartisans: voting behavior in Brazil. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
Shils, Edward. “Mass Society and Its Culture.” In Jacobs N. (Ed.). Mass Media in Modern Society, pp. 43-69. Routledge (1992).
Sobieraj, Sarah, and Jeffrey M. Berry. “From incivility to outrage: Political discourse in blogs, talk radio, and cable news.” Political Communication 28, no. 1 (2011): 19-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2010.542360
Stryker, Robin, Bethany Anne Conway, and J. Taylor Danielson. “What is political incivility?.” Communication Monographs 83, no. 4 (2016): 535-556. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2016.1201207
Sydnor, Emily. “Platforms for incivility: Examining perceptions across different media formats.” Political Communication 35, no. 1 (2018): 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2017.1355857
Urbinati, Nadia. “Democracy and populism.” Constellations 5, no. 1 (1998): 110-124. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.00080.
Van Dalen, Arjen. “Rethinking journalist–politician relations in the age of populism: How outsider politicians delegitimize mainstream journalists.” Journalism 22, no. 11 (2021): 2711-2728. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884919887822
Waisbord, Silvio, and Adriana Amado. “Populist communication by digital means: presidential Twitter in Latin America.” Information, communication & society 20, no. 9 (2017): 1330-1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328521
Waisbord, Silvio. “Why populism is troubling for democratic communication.” Communication Culture & Critique 11, no. 1 (2018): 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1093/ccc/tcx005
Walter, Annemarie. “Conclusion: The study of political incivility and how to move forward.” In A. S. Walter (Ed.), Political Incivility in the Parliamentary, Electoral and Media Arena, pp. 236-242. Routledge, 2021.
Wirth, Werner, Frank Esser, Martin Wettstein, Sven Engesser, Dominique Wirz, Anne Schulz, Nicole Ernst et al. “The appeal of populist ideas, strategies, and styles: A theoretical model and research design for analyzing populist political communication.” NCCR democracy Working Paper series 88 (2016). https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-127461
Wyatt, Wendy N. Critical Conversations: A Theory of Press Criticism. The Hampton Press Communication Series. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press (2007).
Yannis Theocharis, Pablo Barberá, Zoltán Fazekas, and Sebastian Adrian Popa. “The dynamics of political incivility on Twitter.” Sage Open 10, no. 2 (2020).https://doi.org/10.1177/215824402091944.
Yin, Robert K. Case study research: Design and methods. Vol. 5. sage, 2009.
Zurn, Christopher F. “Political civility: Another illusionistic ideal.” Public Affairs Quarterly 27, no. 4 (2013): 341-368. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43575586.